Could a 2/3 majority vote be used as a consensus

I understand that Bitcoin currently is using the chain with most proof-of-work as consensus. However could this method be improved, like only allow one block being generated at any given time, and each node verifies this block with its own past data. If there are more than 2/3 nodes prove the block to be valid then the block is added to the chain. If someone wants to create a fake block, then he must control at least 2/3 of the total nodes. What kind of attack is this consensus vulnerable to?

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